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Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12)
Supplemental - Highly Recommended: Mitochondrial Disease (Mito)
Recommendations for use: Indicated for interventional studies requiring a measure of quality of life. Either the EuroQoL-5D-5L or SF-36/SF-12 is recommended.
Supplemental: Chiari I Malformation (CM), Headache, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Neuromuscular Disease (NMD), Sport-Related Concussion Subacute (after 72 hours to 3 months), and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Exploratory: Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH), and Sport-Related Concussion (SRC) Acute (time of injury until 72 hours)
Short Description of Instrument
Construct measured: Functional health and well-being
Generic vs. disease-specific: Generic
Means of administration: Interview or Self-Administered
Intended respondent: Patient
# of items: 12
# of subscales and names of sub-scales: 8 - Physical Functioning, Role - Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, Role - Emotional, Mental Health
# of items per sub-scale: Varies
Comments/Special Instructions
Background: Optum Incorporated's SF-12v2® Health Survey is a shorter version of the SF-36v2® Health Survey that uses just 12 questions to measure functional health and well-being from the patient's point of view.
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Scores are calibrated so that 50 is the average score or norm. This norm-based score allows comparison among the three surveys and across the more than 14,000 studies published in the past 20 years.
Psychometric Properties: The SF-12v2 is a practical, reliable, and valid measure of physical and mental health.
Strengths/Weaknesses: Particularly useful in large population health surveys or for applications that combine a generic and disease-specific health survey. Available in multiple language translations, the SF-12v2 covers the same eight health domains as the SF-36v2 with one or two questions per domain.
Administration: These surveys are for adults 18 years of age and older and can be self-administered or interview-administered. Multiple other modes of administration are offered, such as online, PDA, and more. Translations are available for multiple languages and countries. Administration takes only 2-3 minutes.
Sport-Related Concussion-Specific:
Strengths: 12 item measure of overall functional health and well-being that includes the following subscales- physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health. Brief (2-3 min) and reliable measure. Scores are normalized with range to 100 with mean of 50. Translated in several languages. There are online, paper and pencil versions. It can be used with 1 and 4 week recall intervals.
Weaknesses: Lack of overall score. No clinical cut-offs and only normative comparison data.
Subpopulation: Adults only 18+
Mitochondrial Disease-Specific:
Strengths: Incorporated into Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Scale for Adults (NMDAS). This instrument can be used to estimate the cost of illness in post-market studies. It is used as a clinical care outcome measure.
Weaknesses: Not validated but has been used in trials.
Key References:
Ware JE Jr., Kosinski M., Turner-Bowker DM, Gandek B. How to Score Version 2 of the SF-12v2® Health Survey (With a Supplement Documenting SF-12® Health Survey) Lincoln, RI: QualityMetric Incorporated, 2002.
Ware JE Jr., (2005). Sf-12 Health Survey (Version 1.0). Retrieved from University of Wollongong.
Additional References:
Ashina S, Lyngberg A, Bendtsen L, Buse D, Lipton R, Jensen R. EHMTI-0291. Chronic headache is associated with mental vulnerability, depression, and neuroticism and poor mental health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional population study. J Headache Pain. 2014;15(Suppl 1):B2.
Kerr ZY, Evenson KR, Rosamond WD, Mihalik JP, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW. Association between concussion and mental health in former collegiate athletes. Inj Epidemiol. 2014 Dec;1(1):28.
List T, John MT, Ohrbach R, Schiffman EL, Truelove EL, Anderson GC. Influence of temple headache frequency on physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with temporomandibular disorder pain. J Orofac Pain. 2012 Spring;26(2):83-90.
Zhao E, Tranovich MJ, DeAngelo R, Kontos AP, Wright VJ. Chronic exercise preserves brain function in masters athletes when compared to sedentary counterparts. Phys Sportsmed. 2016;44(1):8-13.
Document last updated March 2024