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Motor Function Measure (MFM)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Motor Function Measure
Please email the author for information about obtaining the instrument: Dr. Carole Berard,
Phone:33 (0)4 72 12 95 04
The 3rd edition English translation was revised and corrected in November 2017 (validated by the steering committee).
Supplemental - Highly Recommended: Mitochondrial Disease (Mito):
Recommendations for use: Indicated for studies measuring motor function.
Supplemental: Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (CMD)
Short Description of Instrument
The Motor Function Measure (MFM) is a generic scale which provides a measurement of the effects of muscle weakness in neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Assessments are based on posture and movements of the whole body.
This tool makes it possible to follow the evolution of the patients, and to anticipate certain events such as the loss of ability to walk. The MFM can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic measures.
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: To facilitate the analysis of the participant's performance, a maximum of two motor function components are considered for the scoring of each item. For example, in some items the examiner may control the range of the movement, and in others the position of a joint and the transition from one position to another.
There is a generic item scoring defined by:
0: Cannot perform the task, or cannot maintain the starting position
1: Initiated the task
2: Performs the movement incompletely, or completely but imperfectly (compensatory movements, position maintained for an insufficient duration of time, slowness, uncontrolled movement)
3: Performs the task fully and "normally"; the movement is controlled, mastered, directed and performed at constant speed
The scores are expressed as a percentage in relation to the maximum score.
The score for each domain (D1, D2 and D3) corresponds to the sum of the scores obtained by the participant for the items in that domain divided by the maximum score for the domain and multiplied by 100.
For the MFM-32, the total score is the sum of all the scores (in all the domains) divided by 96 and multiplied by 100. For the MFM-20 the total score is the sum of all the scores divided by 60 and multiplied by 100.
Psychometric Properties:  Internal consistency 0.99. Inter- and intra-rater reliability 0.96-0.99 in neuromuscular disorders. Correlation with physicians and physiotherapists' severity score 0.88 and 0.91. High correlation between MFM and Brooke, Vignos, WeeFIM in neuromuscular disorders. Predictive for loss of ambulation in patients with DMD. This instrument has been specifically applied in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Spinal muscular atrophy, and congenital myopathy.
Validated in populations:.
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD)
  • Facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy (FSHD)
  • Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD)
  • Myotonic dystrophy (DM)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)
  • Congenital myopathy (CM) and congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD)
  • Hereditary neuropathy (HN)
Strengths:  Measures patient important functions, excellent reliability and validity, sensitive to change, large age range, possible in ambulatory and non-ambulatory children, measures arm/leg and gross/fine motor function.
Weaknesses:  Time consuming, ceiling effect in more able patients, not determined whether it measures the acitivites in daily life patients with mitochondrial disease are most limited in (items were included based on experience in patients with neuromuscular disease), dependent on cooperation of the patient.
Key Reference:
Berard C, Payan C, Hodgkinson I, Fermanian J; MFM Collaborative Study Group. A motor function measure for neuromuscular diseases. Construction and validation study. Neuromuscul Disord. 2005 Jul;15(7):463-70.
Additional References:
Berard C, Payan C, Fermanian J, Girardot F; Groupe d'Etude MFM. La mesure de fonction motrice, outil d'evaluation clinique des maladies neuromusculaires. Etude de validation [A motor function measurement scale for neuromuscular diseases - description and validation study]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2006 Apr;162(4):485-93. French.
Benaim C, Sacconi S, Fournier-Mehouas M, Tanant V, Desnuelle C. Analyse de validite de la "Mesure de la fonction motrice" (MFM) en pratique de consultation adulte d'un centre de reference pour maladies neuromusculaires [Validity of the motor function measurement scale when routinely used in the follow-up of adult outpatients in a neuromuscular center]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2010 Jan;166(1):49-53. French.
de Lattre C, Payan C, Vuillerot C, Rippert P, de Castro D, Berard C, Poirot I; MFM-20 Study Group. Motor function measure: validation of a short form for young children with neuromuscular diseases. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Nov;94(11):2218-26.
Trundell D, Le Scouiller S, Gorni K, Seabrook T, Vuillerot C; SMA MFM Study Group. Validity and Reliability of the 32-Item Motor Function Measure in 2- to 5-Year-Olds with Neuromuscular Disorders and 2- to 25-Year-Olds with Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Neurol Ther. 2020 Dec;9(2):575-584.
Vuillerot C, Payan C, Girardot F, Fermanian J, Iwaz J, Berard C, Ecochard R; MFM Study Group. Responsiveness of the motor function measure in neuromuscular diseases. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Dec;93(12):2251-6.e1.
Vuillerot C, Girardot F, Payan C, Fermanian J, Iwaz J, De Lattre C, Berard C. Monitoring changes and predicting loss of ambulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy with the Motor Function Measure. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010 Jan;52(1):60-5.
Vuillerot C, Meilleur KG, Jain M, Waite M, Wu T, Linton M, Datsgir J, Donkervoort S, Leach ME, Rutkowski A, Rippert P, Payan C, Iwaz J, Hamroun D, Berard C, Poirot I, Boennemann CG. English cross-cultural translation and validation of the neuromuscular score: a system for motor function classification in patients with neuromuscular diseases. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Nov;95(11):2064-2070.e1.
Vuillerot C, Rippert P, Kinet V, Renders A, Jain M, Waite M, Glanzman AM, Girardot F, Hamroun D, Iwaz J, Ecochard R, Quijano-Roy S, Berard C, Poirot I, Boennemann CG; CDM MFM Study Group. Rasch analysis of the motor function measure in patients with congenital muscle dystrophy and congenital myopathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Nov;95(11):2086-95.
Document last updated March 2024