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Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function- Preschool Version (BRIEF-P)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version
Supplemental - Highly Recommended: Cerebral Palsy (CP) and *Mitochondrial Disease (Mito)
*Recommendations for use: Indicated for studies that aim to assess executive function skills in children ages 2 to 5.
Short Description of Instrument
The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003) is a standardized rating scale developed to specifically measure the range of executive function in children aged 2 to 5 years. The BRIEF-P consists of a single Rating Form, designed to be completed by parents, teachers, or other caregivers, with 63 items in five non-overlapping clinical scales that measure different aspects of executive functioning: Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Working Memory, and Plan/Organize, and two validity scales, Inconsistency and Negativity. (Greene et al., 2019). The scales form a Global Executive Composite (GEC) and three overlapping summary indexes each with two scales based on theoretical and statistical considerations. The Inhibitory Self-Control Index (ISCI) is composed of the Inhibit and Emotional Control scales, the Flexibility Index (FI) is composed of the Shift and Emotional Control scales, and the Emergent Metacognition Index (EMI) is composed of the Working Memory and Plan/Organize scales. The BRIEF-P can serve as a screening tool for possible executive function difficulties and as an index of the ecological validity of laboratory or clinic-based assessments.
Comments/Special Instructions
The BRIEF-P is a rating scale for parents and teachers of preschool-aged children that assesses everyday behaviors associated with executive functions in the home and pre-school environments. Since its publication in 2003, the BRIEF-P has been included in more than 250 studies published internationally in peer-reviewed journals. (Greene et al., 2019)
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: T scores (M = 50, SD = 10) are used to interpret the child's level of executive functioning on the BRIEF-P. These scores are transformations of the raw scale scores. T scores provide information about a child's scores relative to the scores of children in the standardization sample. Traditionally, t scores at or above 65 are considered clinically significant. Percentiles represent the percentage of children in the standardization sample whose scores fall below a given raw score. In the process of interpreting the BRIEF-P, review of individual items within each scale can yield useful information for understanding the specific nature of the individual's elevated score on any given Clinical scale. Although certain items may have considerable clinical relevance for the child being evaluated, placing too much interpretive significance on individual items is not recommended due to lower reliability of individual items relative to the scales and indexes. Online and hand-scoring available.
Psychometric Properties: See Kusi-Mensah et al., 2022 for psychometric properties.
Strengths: Brief assessment of executive function skills in children ages 2-5
Key References:
Gioia GA, Espy KA, Isquith PK. Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®-Preschool Version (BRIEF®-P). Lutz, FL: PARC Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.; 2003.
Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L. Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function® (BRIEF®). 2015. Retrieved 21Jun2016 from
Isquith P, Gioia GA, PAR Staff. Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®-Preschool Version BRIEF®-P Interpretive Report. 2008. Retrieved 22Sep2023 from
Additional References:
Greene JA, Trujillo S, Isquith PK, Gioia GA, & Espy KA. (2019). Enhanced Interpretation of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) [white paper]. PAR. Retrieved 06Oct2023 from:,functions%20in%20the%20home%20and%20pre-%20school%20environments.
Kusi-Mensah K, Nuamah ND, Wemakor S, Agorinya J, Seidu R, Martyn-Dickens C, Bateman A. A Systematic Review of the Validity and Reliability of Assessment Tools for Executive Function and Adaptive Function Following Brain Pathology among Children and Adolescents in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Neuropsychol Rev. 2022 Dec;32(4):974-1016.
Mahone EM, Cirino PT, Cutting LE, Cerrone PM, Hagelthorn KM, Hiemenz JR, Singer HS, Denckla MB. Validity of the behavior rating inventory of executive function in children with ADHD and/or Tourette syndrome. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2002 Oct;17(7):643-62.
Muriel V, Garcia-Molina A, Aparicio-Lopez C, Ensenat A, Roig-Rovira T. Relacion entre el funcionamiento ejecutivo y la conducta en ninos con paralisis cerebral [Relationship between executive functioning and behaviour in children with cerebral palsy]. Rev Neurol. 2015 Oct 16;61(8):337-43. Spanish.
SØrensen K, LiverØd JR, Lerdal B, Vestrheim IE, Skranes J. Executive functions in preschool children with cerebral palsy--Assessment and early intervention--A pilot study. Dev Neurorehabil. 2016;19(2):111-6.
Document last updated March 2024