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Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall (ASA 24)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall
Supplemental - Highly Recommended: Mitochondrial Disease (Mito)
Recommendations for use: Indicated for studies that require dietary assessments.
Short Description of Instrument
The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall (ASA24) is a freely available web-based software tool that enables automated and self- administered 24-hour dietary recalls.
ASA24 can be used by researchers for epidemiologic, intervention, behavioral, or clinical research. Clinicians may use ASA24 for diet assessment and nutrition counseling, and educators may find it to be a useful teaching tool.
ASA24 consists of a Respondent Website used to collect recall data and a Researcher Website used to manage study logistics and obtain data analyses. Two Respondent Websites (English and Spanish) are currently available for registering new studies: ASA24-2022 (adults and children).
The ASA24 was developed to enhance the feasibility of collecting high-quality dietary intake data from large samples.
ASA24 uses an animated guide and audio and visual cues to guide respondents through a 24-hour recall for the previous day from midnight to midnight or for the past 24 hours (depending on researcher preferences). Respondents report foods and drinks by browsing categories or searching from a list of foods and drinks available from the USDA's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS).
The ASA24 Respondent Web site:
    • Can be accessed in English or Spanish
    • Asks respondents to report eating occasion and time of consumption
    • Includes optional modules to query where meals were eaten, whether meals were eaten alone or with others, television and computer use during meals, and source of each food or drink
    • Uses images to assist respondents in reporting portion size
    • Allows the respondent to add or modify food and drink choices at multiple points and includes a final review and list of frequently forgotten foods

Includes an optional module to query dietary supplement intake based on supplements reported in the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
Comments/Special Instructions
The steps in the interview process include:
  1. Meal-based Quick List
  2. Meal Gap Review
  3. Detail Pass
  4. Forgotten Foods
  5. Final Review
  6. Last Chance
  7. Usual Intake Question
  8. Supplement Module (if selected by the researcher)
If a researcher wishes to use multiple versions of the ASA24 Respondent Website, a study would need to be registered for each version.
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Resulting data files available on the Researcher Website include nutrients, foods, food groups, and variables to calculate Healthy Eating Index scores. ASA24 does not provide feedback to users; rather, researchers can obtain data files and contact users with any findings they choose to share.
Psychometric Properties: Information about validation is available at: ASA24 Validation
Strengths: ASA24 is available free of charge to researchers, clinicians, and teachers. Resources for study staff and participants, frequently asked questions, and ready-to-use language about ASA24 to include in funding applications are among the useful materials available on the website. A demonstration version of ASA24 is also available to familiarize study staff with the instrument.
Weaknesses: The ASA24 was developed for use in the U.S. As such, the foods included reflect those consumed by the U.S. population and may not be applicable internationally. For studies conducted outside of the U.S., researchers may need to identify an instrument that includes foods typical of their population.
There are costs to consider when planning a study that uses ASA24. This includes system and labor costs associated with uploading study details and the costs associated with contacting and monitoring respondents, assessing data quality, and analyzing data.
Key Reference:
Kirkpatrick SI, Subar AF, Douglass D, Zimmerman TP, Thompson FE, Kahle LL, George SM, Dodd KW, Potischman N. Performance of the Automated Self- Administered 24-hour Recall relative to a measure of true intakes and to an interviewer-administered 24-h recall. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr 30;100(1):233-40.
Additional References:
Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Watson KB, Martin S, Beltran A, Islam N, Dadabhoy H, Adame SH, Cullen K, Thompson D, Buday R, Subar A. Children's accuracy of portion size estimation using digital food images: effects of interface design and size of image on computer screen. Public Health Nutr. 2011 Mar;14(3):418-25.
Baranowski T, Islam N, Baranowski J, Martin S, Beltran A, Dadabhoy H, Adame SH, Watson KB, Thompson D, Cullen KW, Subar AF. Comparison of a Web-based versus traditional diet recall among children. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Apr;112(4):527-32.
Baranowski T, Islam N, Douglass D, Dadabhoy H, Beltran A, Baranowski J, Thompson D, Cullen KW, Subar AF. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): a self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014 Jan;27 Suppl 1:66-71.
Douglass D, Islam N, Baranowski J, Chen TA, Subar AF, Zimmerman TP, Baranowski T. Simulated adaptations to an adult dietary self-report tool to accommodate children: impact on nutrient estimates. J Am Coll Nutr. 2013;32(2):92-7.
lslam NG, Dadabhoy H, Gillum A, Baranowski J, Zimmerman T, Subar AF, Baranowski T. Digital food photography: dietary surveillance and beyond. Proc Food Sci. 2013;2:122-8.
Subar AF, Kirkpatrick SI, Mittl B, Zimmerman TP, Thompson FE, Bingley C, Willis G, Islam NG, Baranowski T, McNutt S, Potischman N. The Automated Self- Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): a resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Aug;112(8):1134-7.
Subar AF, Crafts J, Zimmerman TP, Wilson M, Mittl B, Islam NG, McNutt S, Potischman N, Buday R, Hull SG, Baranowski T, Guenther PM, Willis G, Tapia R, Thompson FE. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer- based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self- administered 24-hour recall. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jan;110(1):55-64.
Subar AF, Thompson FE, Potischman N, Forsyth BH, Buday R, Richards D, McNutt S, Hull SG, Guenther PM, Schatzkin A, Baranowski T. Formative research of a quick list for an automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jun;107(6):1002-7.
Zimmerman TP, Hull SG, McNutt S, Mittl B, Islam N, Guenther PM, Thompson FE, Potischman NA, Subar AF. Challenges in converting an interviewer-administered food probe database to self-administration in the National Cancer Institute Automated Self-administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24). J Food Compost Anal. 2009 Dec 01;22(Supplement 1):S48-S51.
Document last updated March 2024