Report Viewer

NINDS CDE Notice of Copyright
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)
Availability
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Mini-Mental State Examination
Classification
NeuroRehab Supplemental - Highly Recommended
Recommendations for Use: Indicated for studies requiring a brief cognitive screening measure for moderate to severe cognitive impairments.
 
Supplemental: Parkinson's Disease (PD)
 
Exploratory: Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)
Short Description of Instrument
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a brief, quantitative questionnaire that was developed to identify cognitive status in adults. It has been used in many PD related studies and is a generic instrument that is administered by a trained examiner to the patient.
Comments/Special Instructions
NeuroRehab Specific: This test will work as a cognitive screening for significant impairment, but lacks sensitivity to mild impairments. It is a legacy measure that is still useful in certain conditions that may be associated with moderate to severe impairment. It has not done well in detecting mild to moderate impairments (e.g., those associated with HIV).
Scoring

Scores are based on a 30 point scale with 5 subscales: orientation (10 points), registration and short-term recall (6 points), attention and concentration (10 points), language (both oral and written, 8 points); and visuospatial function (1 point). The higher the scores the greater the cognitive function. There are age-based and education-based norms for this although they are not typically used in PD.

Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Scores are based on a 30 point scale with 5 subscales: orientation (10 points), registration and short-term recall (6 points), attention and concentration (10 points), language (both oral and written, 8 points); and visuospatial function (1 point). The higher the scores the better the cognitive function. There are age-based and education-based norms for this, although they are not typically used in PD.
 
Psychometric Properties: Internal consistency in clinical samples .66 to ,79 (PAR). Aggrawal & Kean (2010) report internal consistency of ,78. Tombaugh (2005) reports retest correlations as .48 - .65.
Rationale/Justification
Strengths: Very short administration time. Has been actively used in research for over 40 years. Can be administered in over 75 languages. Free if not using PAR edition or translations. There is a revised edition with updated norms and a longer form from PAR. May be associated with rehabilitation outcomes (Poynter et al., 2011). Almost all clinicians have experience in administering this screening test.
Weaknesses:
Lacks sensitivity to mild to moderate levels of cognitive impairment that would frequently occur within rehabilitation populations. Restricted range limits utility as a gauge of cognitive improvement.
References
Aggarwal A, Kean E. Comparison of the Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a screening tool in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Neurosci Med. 2010;1(2):39-42.
 
Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF. Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA. 1993;269(18):2386-2391.
 
Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12(3):189-198.
 
Poynter L, Kwan J, Sayer AA, Vassallo M. Does cognitive impairment affect rehabilitation outcome?. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(11):2108-2111.
 
Tombaugh TN. Test-retest reliable coefficients and 5-year change scores for the MMSE and 3MS. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2005;20(4):485-503.
 
For alternate languages see https://www.parinc.com/Products/Pkey/237
 
Document last updated January 2022