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Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: PLEASE CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION


Short Description of Instrument
Description: The QOLIE-31 is not simply a short form of the QOLIE- 89, despite its name and the overlap in QOL constructs measured by the two instruments. The QOLIE-31 was developed by eliminating many of the generic QOLIE-89 items and adding other items reflecting concerns of persons with epilepsy, based on expert panel review.Approximately half the QOLIE-31 items are taken from the QOLIE-89. The others were developed specifically for this instrument and are not included in the QOLIE-89. Contains 31 items assessing 7 domains of Seizure Worry (7 items), Overall QOL (2 items), Emotional well-being (5 items), Energy-Fatigue (4 items), Cognitive Functioning (6 items), Medication effects (3 items), Social Functioning (5 items) and an Overall Score.


The time frame for some questions is the previous 4 week time period, unspecified for others.


Time to completion is approximately 5-10 minutes.


Particular Features:


Intended to focus more on concerns of epilepsy patients and less on generic HRQOL domains (e.g., pain, physical function). Therefore, unlike the QOLIE-89, the QOLIE-31 does not contain all items of the MOS Short-Form 36. Also, the QOLIE-89 does not contain all items of the QOLIE-31, so QOLIE-31 scores cannot be derived from studies where only the QOLIE-89 was administered. Translations available in Danish, Dutch, German, Canadian French, French, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, UK English, Greek, Thai, Czech, Brazilian Portuguese and Chinese.


Validation studies have been performed in Spanish, Chinese, Greek, Thai, Italian, French, Czech, Brazilian Portuguese, German.
Psychometric Properties
Scoring is 0 – 100 points with higher scores indicating better quality of life.


Reliability – .89 overall; subscales ranged from .77-.85


Validity – Known-groups validity has been established for seizure frequency and severity, employment, polytherapy, health care utilization, economic status, age and epilepsy onset.  QOLIE-31 scales correlate with measures of mood, depression, and AED toxicity.


Responsiveness to Change – has been shown to be sensitive to the effects of changing to a novel AED, participating in a disease management program, and surgery to control seizures.

Weaknesses: This questionnaire is not intended for use in intellectually impaired persons. Respondents must be able to read and comprehend the questions at a 10 to 12-year-old level.
Source for Materials and Permissions: Joyce Cramer. For questions about use, please contact the developer at

Primary References:  
Cramer JA, Perrine K, Devinsky O, Bryant-Comstock L, Meador K, Hermann B. Development and cross-cultural translations of a 31-item quality of life in epilepsy inventory. Epilepsia 1998; 39:81-88.  
Borghs S, de la Loge C, Cramer JA. Defining minimally important change in QOLIE-31 scores: estimates from three placebo-controlled lacosamide trials in patients with partial-onset seizures. Epilepsy Behav. 2012;23(3):230-234.  
Secondary References:  
Blond BN, Detyniecki K, Hirsch LJ. Assessment of treatment side effects and quality of life in people with epilepsy. Neuro Clin 2016: 34:395-410.  
Leone NA, Beghi E, Righini C, Apolone G. Mosconi P. Epilepsy and quality of life in adults: A review of instruments. Epilepsy Research 2005; 66; 23-44.  
Saadi A, Patenaude MA, Mateen FJ. Quality of life in epilepsy-31 inventory (QOLIE-31) scores: A global comparison. Epilepsy & Behavior 2016:65:13-17.


Document last updated July 2018