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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV)
Availability
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition
Classification
NeuroRehab Supplemental - Highly Recommended
Recommendations for Use: Indicated for studies requiring a comprehensive measure of intellectual functioning.
It has general applicability in cases of known or suspected cognitive impairment, and/or where remaining cognitive strengths are likely to be important in the rehabilitation process.
 
However, care should be taken in interpreting results if sensory/motor deficits are likely to be prominent and may reduce the validity of these tests for measuring cognition (e.g., with CP or MS).
 
Supplemental-Highly Recommended: Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Sport-Related Concussion (SRC)
 
Supplemental: Epilepsy, Mitochondrial Disease (Mito), Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Stroke, and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Short Description of Instrument
The WAIS-IV is a battery of tests that provides an estimate of current general and specific elements of intellectual functioning. The WAIS-IV has 10 core subtests (Arithmetic, Block Design, Comprehension, Digit Span, Digit Symbol, Information, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Arrangement, Picture Completion, Processing Speed, Object Assembly, Similarities, Symbol Search, and Vocabulary) which make up four index scores, including the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), the Working Memory Index (WMI), and the Processing Speed Index (PSI).
 
Index Scores:
FSIQ, General Ability (GAI)
 
Verbal Comprehension (VCI):
The VCI is a measure of vocabulary, verbal reasoning, and knowledge acquired from one's environment.
 
Perceptual Reasoning (PRI):
The PRI is a measure of perceptual and fluid reasoning, spatial processing, and visual-motor integration.
 
Working Memory (WMI):
The WMI is a measure of working memory abilities, which involves attention, concentration, mental control and reasoning. Working memory tasks require the ability to temporarily retain information in memory, perform some operation or manipulation with it, and produce a result.
 
Processing Speed (PSI):
The PSI is composed of subtests measuring the speed of mental and fine motor control. The PSI provides a measure of the person's ability to quickly and correctly scan, sequence, or discriminate simple visual information. This composite also measures short-term memory, attention, and visual-motor coordination.
 
Excellent norms are available, which are frequently revised and correlated to other Wechsler products such as the WRAT-4, DKEFS subtests and the CVLT II.
 
Subtests:
VCI: Similarities, Vocabulary, Information
PSI: Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Visual Puzzles
WMI: Digit Span, Arithmetic
PSI: Symbol Search, Coding
 
Publication Date: 2008
 
Ages: Individuals 16:0-90:11 years
 
Completion Time: 60-90 minutes
 
Language:
English, Spanish. Note: there are at least 20 different languages (e.g., for most European countries, many in Asia, and some Spanish with South American norms). Contact the publisher for specific language information.
Comments/Special Instructions
Block Design Subtest: Considerations with CNS impairment, including with Epilepsy
 
Formal IQ Testing
The WAIS-IV was released in 2008, and there are presently no peer-reviewed clinical studies of the WAIS-IV in epilepsy. Historically, the natural evolution for adopting new psychological tests following their revision occurs over an approximate 5-year transition period.
 
For studies using Wechsler short forms derived from either the WASI or WAIS-IV/WISC-IV, the committee recommends, at a minimum, including the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests. Similarly, the committee recommends that the General Ability Index be calculated when the full WAIS-IV/WISC-IV is administered to facilitate comparisons with the FSIQ obtained with the WASI.
 
Visuospatial (Optional Domain)
Spatial skills, to date, have not been a primary interest in most epilepsy studies. Other than improvement following contralateral/dominant hemisphere surgery, visuospatial performances tend to remain stable. In addition, there is greater variability in tests used to measure visual spatial abilities compared to language measures (e.g., Judgment of Line Orientation, Visual Object and Space Perception, Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure copy).
 
Rather than recommend an additional test to the CDE neuropsychology protocol, the committee is cognizant of the fact that in most cases, Block Design will be administered as part of the Wechsler IQ testing. Consequently, when an individual visual spatial task is needed, performance on the Block Design subtest can be used.
 
For studies using the WAIS-IV, the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) derived from performances on Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Visual Puzzles can be present. If the WASI has been used, then the PIQ, which is analogous to the WAIS-IV PRI given the absence of tests of processing speed, can be reported.
 
Recommended Tests:
Block Design, WAIS-IV Perceptual Reasoning Index
 
Digit Span Subtest: Considerations for CNS Impairment, including with TBI
Description: Two sections: Digits Forward and Digits Backward
 
Permissible Values: Raw score: 0-30 Scaled Score: 1-19.
 
Procedures: Administered verbally. Requires minimal training. Administration time is 10 minutes.
 
Comments: Adults 16-89 years
 
Rationale: The Digit Span subtest is a widely used measure of auditory attention that is well-normed and sensitive to the effects of TBI
 
References:
Wechsler, D. Wechsler adult intelligence scale (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: NCS Pearson; 2008.
 
Digit Symbol Subtest: Considerations for CNS Impairment, including with Stroke
 
Purpose:
This test has been shown to predict group membership defined by processing speed deficits, such as brain-injured versus control participants and has been used as a sensitive outcome in studies identifying predictors of longitudinal decline in elders.
 
Overview:
The digit-symbol subtest measures the time to recode symbol and digit items. The test requires elements of attention, visuoperceptual processing, working memory, and psychomotor speed.
 
Time: Assessment takes a few minutes to complete
 
Scoring: The score is the number correctly coded from 0-133 in 120 seconds.
 
Psychometric Properties: The test demonstrates strong reliability and validity coefficients.
 
References:
De Monte VE, Geffen GM, May CR, McFarland K. Improved sensitivity of the rapid screen of mild traumatic brain injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010 Jan;32(1):28-37.
 
Knopman DS, Mosley TH, Catellier DJ, Coker LH; Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Brain MRI Study. Fourteen-year longitudinal study of vascular risk factors, APOE genotype, and cognition: the ARIC MRI Study. Alzheimers Dement. 2009 May;5(3):207-14.
 
Wechsler D. Wechsler adult intelligence scale-III. New York: Psychological Corporation; 1997.
 
Letter-Number Sequencing Subtest: Considerations for CNS Impairment, including TBI
 
Description:
This is a complex span task involving simultaneous processing. The participant is presented with a mixed list of numbers and letters and their task is to repeat the list by saying the numbers first in ascending order and then the letters in alphabetical order.
 
Permissible Values:
Performance on this measure is converted to scaled scores with a mean of 10 and standard deviation of 3. The scaled score is adjusted for age.
 
Procedures:
Requires trained examiner to administer. Administration time is 5 minutes.
 
Comments:
This is a performance-based measure which requires the participant to understand what is required and participate in the testing. It requires a functional level in the severe disability or above on the GOS/GOSE.
 
Rationale:
Highest factor analytic loading on Working Memory factor. Good psychometric properties and sensitivity to severity of TBI. Legacy measure for the NIH Toolbox Working Memory Subdomain.
 
References:
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III. Letter-Number Sequencing Subtest. Pearson Education Inc, San Antonio, TX.
 
Processing Speed Index Subtests: Considerations for CNS impairments including TBI and Stroke
 
Description:
This index is based on 2 subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. For Digit Symbol, participant must accurately fill in symbols, according to matched number-symbol pairs in a key in 120 seconds. For Symbol Search, participant determines whether either of two target symbols match any of the symbols in a search group; participant must respond to as many items as able in 120 seconds.
 
Permissible Values:
The 2 subtests yield scaled scores adjusted for age with a mean of 10 and standard deviation of 3. The WAIS PS Index is based on the 2 subtests with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15 adjusted for age.
 
Procedures:
Requires trained examiner to administer and neuropsychologist or psychologist to interpret. Administration time is 10 minutes.
 
Comments:
This is a performance-based measure which requires the participant to understand what is required and participate in the testing. It requires a functional level in the severe disability or above on the GOS/GOSE.
 
Rationale:
Good psychometric properties. Sensitive to TBI and its severity. Legacy measure for NIH Toolbox Processing Speed Subdomain.
 
References:
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III/IV. Processing Speed Index. Pearson Education Inc, San Antonio, TX.
 
Symbol Search Subtest
Purpose:
The symbol-search subtest of the WAIS III is an indicator of processing speed and visual perception.
 
Overview:
The symbol-search subtest requires rapid identification of targets. Specifically, for each item the participant must search a series of five figures to see if either of two targets occur, and mark yes or no for each item. Recent fMRI findings have shown greater activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortices associated with slower symbol search performance. This subtest and the Digit-Symbol subtest together comprise the Processing Speed Index of the WAIS-III.
 
Scoring:
The score is the number correct in 120 seconds from 0-60.
 
Time: Assessment takes approximately 3 minutes.
 
Psychometric Properties:
The subtest has shown validity in studies of adults with various neurological disorders.
 
References:
Sweet LH, Paskavitz JF, O'Connor MJ, Browndyke JN, Wellen JW, Cohen RA. FMRI correlates of the WAIS-III symbol search subtest. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2005 Jul;11(4):471-6.
 
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-3®) San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
 
ME/CFS-Specific:
In general, at the group level, the subscore component profile will show average or above average values for the Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning Components, while Working Memory and especially Processing Speed are often in the below average range.
 
References:
Tiersky LA, Cicerone KD, Natelson BH, DeLuca J. Neuropsychological Functioning in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison. Clin Neuropsychol. 1998;12(4):503-12.
 
Sport-Related Concussion Recommended Tests-Specific:
The Working Memory Index (WMI) and the Processing Speed Index (PSI).
 
NeuroRehab-Specific:
WAIS-IV is Supplemental - Highly Recommended as full battery at baseline; selected subtests [e.g., those in the Processing Speed, Working Memory and Perceptual Organization domains] may be used to track changes.
Scoring and Psychometric Properties
Scoring: Hand or computer scored. Alternative subtests are available for administration to a participant who is not a native English speaker or has received their academic education elsewhere.
 
Psychometric Properties: Per the Comments/Special Instructions section, the WAIS-IV subtests have shown validity in various studies.
Rationale/Justification
Mitochondrial Disease-Specific:
Strengths: As noted above, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale has long been considered a gold standard instrument for assessing adult intelligence in both research and clinical settings. It is widely used and well validated. Previous versions of the WAIS have been used to characterize specific phenotypic characteristics of particular mitochondrial disorders. For example, relative weaknesses in nonverbal reasoning ability in individuals with POLG1 mutations and the syndrome of mitochondrial spinocerebellar ataxia and epilepsy (Gramstad et. al., 2009), though psychomotor slowing may have impacted results. Similarly, previous versions of the WAIS have been used as sensitive measures of generalized cognitive decline in mitochondrial disorders as a whole (Finsterer, 2009).
 
Weaknesses: WAIS-IV is sensitive to disease status in mitochondrial disorder, with mitochondrial disease patients obtaining lower scores on all indices. It is important to note that processing speed and nonverbal indices may be particularly impacted by motor impairment in this group, however (Moore et al., 2019)
References
Key References:
Wechsler, D. (2008) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, fourth edition (WAIS-IV). The Psychological Corporation; San Antonio, TX. Technical Manual.
 
Wechsler D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-3®) San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment; 1997.
 
Wechsler D. Wechsler adult intelligence scale-III. New York: Psychological Corporation; 1997.
 
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III. Letter-Number Sequencing Subtest. Pearson Education Inc, San Antonio, TX.
 
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III/IV. Processing Speed Index. Pearson Education Inc, San Antonio, TX.
 
Additional References:
Carlozzi NE, Kirsch NL, Kisala PA, Tulsky DS. An examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in individuals with complicated mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Clin Neuropsychol. 2015;29(1):21-37.
 
De Monte VE, Geffen GM, May CR, McFarland K. Improved sensitivity of the rapid screen of mild traumatic brain injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010 Jan;32(1):28-37.
 
Elgh E, Hu X. Dynamic Trajectory of Long-Term Cognitive Improvement Up to 10 Years in Young Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors: A Cohort Study. Front Neurol. 2019 Feb 12;10:97.
 
Finsterer J. Mitochondrial disorders, cognitive impairment and dementia. J Neurol Sci. 2009;283:143-148.
 
Gramstad A, Bindoff LA, LillebØ A, Tzoulis C, Engelsen BA. Neuropsychological performance in patients with POLG1 mutations and the syndrome of mitochondrial spinocerebellar ataxia and epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2009 Sep;16(1):172-4.
 
Knopman DS, Mosley TH, Catellier DJ, Coker LH; Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Brain MRI Study. Fourteen-year longitudinal study of vascular risk factors, APOE genotype, and cognition: the ARIC MRI Study. Alzheimers Dement. 2009 May;5(3):207-14.
 
McCrea SM, Robinson TP. Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights, and Cancellation: Some Preliminary Hypotheses on the Functional and Neural Substrates of These Three New WAIS-IV Subtests. ISRN Neurology. 2011:1-19.
 
Moore, H.L., Kelly, T., Bright, A., Field, R.H., Schaefer, A.M., Blain, A.P., Taylor, R.W., McFarland, R., Turnbull, D.M. and Gorman, G.S. (2019), Cognitive deficits in adult m.3243A>G- and m.8344A>G-related mitochondrial disease: importance of correcting for baseline intellectual ability. Ann Clin Transl Neurol, 6: 826-836.
 
Moore H, Kelly T, Trenell M, Deary I, Turnbull D, Gorman G. PROGRESSIVE COGNITIVE DIFFICULTIES IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASE. [Abstract] J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 2013;84(11):e2.
 
Ryan JJ, Gontokovsky ST, Kreiner DS, and Tree HA. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34 (6):571-9.
 
Sweet LH, Paskavitz JF, O'Connor MJ, Browndyke JN, Wellen JW, Cohen RA. FMRI correlates of the WAIS-III symbol search subtest. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2005 Jul;11(4):471-6.
 
Theiling J, Petermann F, Daseking M. WAIS-IV Profiles in First-Ever Unilateral Ischemic Stroke Patients. Zeitschrift fuer Neuropsychologie 2013 Nov;24(4):239-52. Tiersky LA, Cicerone KD, Natelson BH, DeLuca J. Neuropsychological Functioning in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison. Clin Neuropsychol. 1998;12(4):503-12.
 
Presentations:
 
Wisdom NM, Mignogna J, Collins RL. Variability in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV subtest performance across age. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2012 Jun;27(4):389-97.
 
Yin Foo R, Guppy M, Johnston LM. Intelligence assessments for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013 Oct;55(10):911-8.
 
Many studies have at least used some subtests of the WAIS IV including Digit Span forward and backward, Digit Symbols, and Vocabulary (for an estimate of verbal IQ).
 
Document last updated March 2024