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Parkinson Anxiety Scale (PAS)
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Supplemental – Highly Recommended: Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
Short Description of Instrument
The Parkinson Anxiety Scale (PAS) is a 12-item observer or patient-rated scale with three subscales, for persistent anxiety (5-items), episodic anxiety (4-items), and avoidance behavior (3-items).
The main aim of the scale was to provide a reliable measurement of the severity of anxiety symptoms in Parkinson’s patients, rather than designing an instrument specifically intended for screening or diagnosis (Leentjens, et al., 2014). The PAS was validated in a one-year cross-sectional international multicentre study that included 362 patients from six tertiary referral centers: two in the United States, three in Europe, and one in Australia.
Items were scored on a 5 point Likert scale, with '0' meaning 'not or never' and '4' meaning 'severe or almost always'. The self-rated version can be completed in less than two minutes, and the observer-rated version in five minutes.
Properties for acceptability and reliability met predetermined criteria. The convergent and known groups validity was good. The scale had a satisfactory factorial structure. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and Youden index of the PAS are higher than that of existing anxiety rating scales (Leentjens et al., 2014). In addition to validation according to the classical test theory, the PAS was also validated according to the item-response theory, where it showed an adequate fit to the Rasch model (Forjaz et al., 2015).
Conclusion: the PAS is a reliable and valid anxiety measure for use in PD patients, but still needs to have additional validation in the area of ‘sensitivity to change.’
Leentjens AFG, Dujardin K, Pontone GM, Starkstein S, Weintraub D, MartínezMartín P. The Parkinson anxiety scale (PAS): Development and validation of a new anxiety scale. Mov Disord. 2014;29(8):1035–1043.
Forjaz J, Martinez-Martin P, Dujardin K, Pontone GM, Starkstein SE, Weintraub D, Leentjens AFG. Is the Parkinson Anxiety Scale comparable across raters? Mov Disord. 2015;30:545–551.
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