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Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM)
Availability
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure.
Classification
Supplemental – Highly Recommended: Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Short Description of Instrument
Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) is parent-proxy assessment of the participation of children aged 0 to 5 years in home, preschool/daycare and community environments and the impact of these environments on participation. This is a generic measure of participation and environment, not CP-specific.
Comments/Special Instructions
YC-PEM has preliminary evidence of concurrent validity, as a consistent and stable estimate of participation and ability to detect differences in level of involvement and perceived environmental support between children with and without disabilities. No research about sensitivity to change has been published.
Scoring
Parents are asked to consider the child’s participation in 13 activities in the home environment (e.g., personal care, mealtimes), 3 in preschool/daycare (e.g., socialising, field trips) and 12 in the community (e.g., dining out, community events). Three dimensions are completed for each item. First parents rate the frequency of participation in each activity on an 8-point scale where 0 is never and 7 is once or more each day. Level of involvement is then rated from 1 (not very involved) to 5 (very involved). Finally, parents indicate their desire for the child’s participation (yes/no). If the response is “yes” parents are asked whether the desired change involves frequency, level or diversity of activities. After completing the participation items for each environment, families are asked to rate the impact of features and resources in that environment on the child’s participation. Four main scores are obtained: average frequency of involvement (0–7), level of involvement (1–5), percent desired change (0–100) and environmental support (0–100).
Rationale/Justification
YC-PEM has not specifically been validated in children with cerebral palsy.  Samples in the studies evaluating the YC-PEM included children with developmental disabilities and typically developing children aged 0 to 5 years.
References
Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YCPEM): CanChild; [cited 2016 30 June]. Available from: https://www.canchild.ca/en/resources/223-young-children-s-participation-and-environment-measure-ycpem.
 
Additional References:
 
Benjamin TE, Lucas-Thompson RG, Little LM, Davies PL, Khetani MA. Participation in Early Childhood Educational Environments for Young Children with and Without Developmental Disabilities and Delays: A Mixed Methods Study. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2016:1–21.
 
Lim CY, Law M, Khetani M, Pollock N, Rosenbaum P. Establishing the Cultural Equivalence of the Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) for Use in Singapore. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2015:1–8.
 
Khetani MA. Validation of environmental content in the Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(2):317–322.
 
Khetani MA, Graham JE, Davies PL, Law MC, Simeonsson RJ. Psychometric properties of the Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(2):307–316.
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