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Peabody Developmental Motor Scale Second Edition (PDMS-2)
Availability
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument:  Peabody Developmental Motor Scale Second Edition (PDMS-2)
Classification
Supplemental - Highly Recommended: for measuring deterioration and short- term improvement in pediatric Mitochondrial Disease (Mito)
 
Supplemental: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
 
Exploratory: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)-Pediatric (ages 0–5 years)
Short Description of Instrument
The PDMS-2 (Folio and Fewell 2000) is an early childhood motor development program that provides (in one package) both in-depth assessment and training of remediation of gross and fine motor skills. The assessment is composed of six subtests (Reflexes, Stationary, Locomotion, Object Manipulation, Grasping and Visual Motor Integration) that measure interrelated motor abilities that develop early in life. It is designed to assess the motor skills of children from birth through 5 years of age.
 
Administration time: 45-60 minutes
Scoring
Scores include 1) a Gross Motor Quotient which is a composite of the Reflexes, Stationary, Locomotion and Object Manipulation subtests, 2) a Fine Motor Quotient, a composite of the Grasping and Visual-Motor Integration subtests, and 3) a Total Quotient, a combination of the gross and motor subtests.
 
Scores are reported as standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents.
Comments/Special Instructions
Administration Skills: MA (psychologist, OT, speech pathologist, social work, special education) or BA Occupational therapies with certification.
 
Limitations: Valid up to age 5 years. Has not yet been validated in mitochondrial disease.
Rationale/Justification
Strengths/Weaknesses: Relatively wide age range, reference values for normal children available, good psychometric properties.
Developed for the follow-up and screening of healthy children, requires a lot of time.
The PDMS-2 is limited to children of preschool age or five years old and younger. Sometimes, it can be used on children who are as old as eight years old, but this assessment tool cannot be used to diagnose motor skill dysfunctions in older children and adults.
 
Assesses both qualitative and quantitative aspects of gross and fine motor development in young children; recommends specific interventions.
 
Psychometric Properties: Internal consistency 0.85–0.98; balance in 3–4 year olds 0.71; test-retest reliability 0.82–0.96 and interrater reliability 0.96–0.99. Correlation with age 0.80–0.93, correlates with other scales for early development 0.73–0.91. 39% of the children with fine motor problems according to PDMS-2.
 
Administration: This assessment test is composed of six sub-tests that include special instructions on how each is administered to the preschool-age child. To keep the results of the test reliable and precise, the actual instructions on how the test will be carried out are only given to the test administrators and psychologists. This will prevent the parents from "preparing" their child to pass the test. The PDMS-2 can be used by occupational therapists, physical therapists, diagnosticians, early intervention specialists, adapted physical education teachers, psychologists, and others who are interested in examining the motor abilities of young children.
 
References
Australian Council for Educational Research. (2012). Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2) Summary Report. Retrieved 12 January, 2016, from https://www.acer.edu.au/documents/PDMS- 2DetailedReportSample.pdf.
 
Connolly BH, Dalton L, Smith JB, Lamberth NG, McCay B, & Murphy W. Concurrent validity of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) Motor Scale and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale II (PDMS-2) in 12- month-old infants. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2006; 18(3): 190–196.
 
Markusic M. (2012). Assessing Motor Skills in Early Childhood - Using the PDMS. Retrieved 12 January, 2016, from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special- ed-physical-disabilities/13499-assess-the-motor-skills-of-children-using-peabody- developmental-motor-scale/.
 
Pediatric:
Connolly BH, McClune NO, & Gatlin R. Concurrent validity of the Bayley-III and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2012; 24(4): 345–352.
 
Darrah J, Magill-Evans J, Volden J, Hodge M and Kembhavi G. Scores of typically developing children on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales: infancy to preschool. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2007; 27(3): 5–19.
 
Folio MR and Fewell RR. (2000). Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2). Retrieved 11 January, 2016, from http://www.pearsonclinical.com/therapy/products/100000249/peabody- developmental-motor-scales-second-edition-pdms-2.html.
 
Gebhard AR, Ottenbacher KJ and Lane SJ. Interrater reliability of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales: fine motor scale. Am J Occup Ther. 1994; 48(11): 976–981.
 
Hinderer KA, Richardson PK, and Atwater SW. Clinical implication of the peabody developmental motor scales: a constructive review. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 1989; 9(2): 81–106.
 
van Hartingsveldt MJ, Cup EH, and Oostendorp RA. Reliability and validity of the fine motor scale of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2. Occup Ther Int.  2005; 12(1): 1–13.
 
Wang HH, Liao HF, and Hsieh CL. Reliability, sensitivity to change, and responsiveness of the peabody developmental motor scales-second edition for children with cerebral palsy. Phys Ther. 2006; 86(10): 1351–1359.
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