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Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS)
Availability
Classification
Supplemental: Mitochondrial Disease
Short Description of Instrument
Construct measured: Presence and severity of dystonia in rest and during activity, including provoking factors and a disability scale
Validated scale used to quantify dystonia symptoms and signs. It is composed of two sections: a movement scale and a disability scale. It has been used in multiple studies to quantify the efficacy of treatments for dystonia, most frequently deep brain stimulation studies. dystonia in nine body regions (Appendix SUI, supporting information published online).
Generic vs. disease specific: Generic
Means of administration: Physical therapy/Q
Intended respondent: Participant
# of items: 9 regions
# of subscales and names of sub-scales: N/A
# of items per sub-scale: N/A
Comments/Special Instructions
Strengths/Weaknesses: Includes and patient relevant disability scale; not burdening to patients
Time consuming to assess with two examiners, complicated weighing system, too detailed dystonia severity scale, not responsive to treatment whilst other functional factors did improve, designed for adults
Scoring
The presence of dystonia is evaluated by the provoking factor subscale and is scored on a 4-point ordinal scale. Severity is scored by the severity factor subscale with a score range from 0 to 4. The individual score for each region is the product of the provoking factor and the severity factor. To 'downweight' the eyes, mouth, and neck regions, the scores for these areas are each multiplied by 0.5 before summing all region scores to calculate a total score. The maximal total score is 120.
Rationale/Justification
Strengths/Weaknesses: Includes and patient relevant disability scale; not burdening to patients
Time consuming to assess with two examiners, complicated weighing system, too detailed dystonia severity scale, not responsive to treatment whilst other functional factors did improve, designed for adults
References
Key Reference: Burke et al, 1985, Gimeno et al, 2012, Krystkowiak et al, 2007, Monbaliu et al, 2010, Pavone et al, 2012
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