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Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)
Availability
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.
Classification
Supplemental: Mitochondrial Disease (Mito)
Short Description of Instrument
The Autism Diagnostic Observation ScheduleTM (ADOSTM) is a semi-structured
observational instrument used to diagnose and assess autism consisting of a series of tasks which involve interaction between the researcher and participant.
The diagnostic algorithm consists of the domains of Communication, Reciprocal Social Interaction, Play (Module 1), Imagination/Creativity (Module 2), and Stereotyped Behaviours and Restricted Interests. The ADOS consists of four modules, one of which is selected for administration based upon the child’s expressive language ability.
Rationale/Justification
Strengths: Gold standard diagnostic tool for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Able to provide severity scores within each domain that may change over time.
Weaknesses: The assessment tool is long and needs to be administered by a licensed provider. Difficulty in distinguishing symptoms of ASD and intellectual disabilities in children and adults. May use revised algorithms to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the tool in individuals with intellectual disabilities.
Specific to Mitochondrial Disease: Autism spectrum disorders have been reported in individuals with mitochondrial disorders. The ADOS is one of two gold standard diagnostic tools for ASD and can also be used to assess severity of symptoms over time. There have been no studies to validate the assessment in individuals with mitochondrial disorders.
Scoring
There are five domains, with minimum required cut-offs for each domain. The higher the score, the more severe the impairment.
References
Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore P, Pickles A, Rutter M. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule --Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2000;30(3):205–223.
Tanja Sappoka, Albert Diefenbachera, Jan Budcziesb, Christoph Schadea, Claudia Grubicha, Thomas Bergmanna, Sven Böltec, Isabel Dziobek. Diagnosing autism in a clinical sample of adults with intellectual disabilities: How useful are the ADOS and the ADI-R? Research in Developmental Disabilities Volume 34, Issue 5, May 2013, Pages 1642–1655
Kylie M. Gray Æ Bruce J. Tonge Æ Deborah J. Sweene Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule with Young Children with Developmental Delay: Evaluating Diagnostic Validity. J Autism Dev Disord (2008) 38:657–667
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