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Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
Please visit this website for more information about the instrument: Beck Anxiety Inventory
Supplemental-Highly Recommended: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)
Supplemental: Epilepsy, Headache, Mitochondrial Disease (Mito)
Exploratory: Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)
Short Description of Instrument
Overview: The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) measures the severity of an individual's anxiety. It is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring how the subject has been feeling in the last week, focusing primarily on somatic symptoms. Importantly, Raj and colleagues (2009) suggest that the BAI may overestimate anxiety severity in patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Specifically, 5 of the 21 items on the BAI are consistent with somatic orthostatic symptoms and thus could inflate the anxiety score. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the following 5 BAI items in patients with comorbid POTS: heart pounding and racing, feeling dizzy and light-headed, numbness and tingling, feeling unable to relax, and feeling unsteady. The scale is also available in Spanish. This examination is intended to assess short-term anxiety symptoms. The BAI is self-administered or verbally administered by a trained administrator, and each item is descriptive of subjective, somatic, or pain-related symptoms of anxiety. Each question has the same set of four possible answer choices. The scale takes approximately 5-10 minutes to administer and has state and trait anxiety components. Age range is 17 to 80 years.
Psychometric Properties: The BAI is found to discriminate well between anxious and non-anxious diagnostic groups in a variety of clinical populations.
ME/CFS Specific:
Advantages: Has potential to be used over the phone.
Limitations: Rao et al. (2006) only used the - the trait version of the scale (BAIT). The scale appears to be sufficiently sensitive to assess trait anxiety and changes over time in ME/CFS patients.
The BAI items are scored on a scale between 0 and 3 and have a maximum score of 63. Total score (0–63), where Minimal Level of Anxiety (0–7); Mild Anxiety (8–15); Moderate Anxiety (16–25); Severe Anxiety (26–63). The instrument can either be manually scored or by using Pearson's proprietary Q-global scoring and reporting software.
Beck AT. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988; 56(6): 893–897.
Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for The Beck Depression Inventory - Second Edition (BDI-II). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation; 1996.
Beck AT, Steer RA, Ball R, Ranieri W. Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories -IA and -II in psychiatric outpatients. J Pers Assess. 1996; 67(3): 588–597.
Muntingh AD, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, van Marwijk HW, Spinhoven P, Penninx BW, van Balkom AJ. Is the Beck Anxiety Inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). BMC Fam Pract. 2011;12(66).
Rao AV, Bested AC, Beaulne TM, Katzman MA, Iorio C, Berardi JM, Logan AC. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Gut Pathog. 2009;1(1):6.
Raj V, Haman KL, Raj SR, Byrne D, Blakely RD, Biaggioni I, Robertson D, Shelton RC. Psychiatric Profile and Attention Deficits in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80(3):339-344.
Recommended Instrument for
Epilepsy, Headache, ME/CFS, Mito and SAH
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